Accredited Pharmacist – an accredited pharmacist is a registered pharmacist that undertakes further study through the Australian Association of Consultant Pharmacists. Accreditation qualifies the pharmacist to conduct Medication Management Review Services including Home Medicine Reviews, Residential Medication Management Reviews and Quality Use of Medicine Reviews.
Addiction Addiction is a condition that results when a person ingests a substance (alcohol, cocaine, nicotine, heroin, morphine, benzodiazepines) or engages in an activity (gambling) that can be pleasurable but the continued use of which becomes compulsive and interferes with ordinary life responsibilities, such as work or relationships, even health.
Ante-natal Antenatal means before birth
Anticoagulant An anti-coagulant is a substance that reduce the clotting of blood.
Asthma Asthma is a disease of the airways, the small tubes which carry air in and out of the lungs where the muscles in the airways tighten and the lining of the airways swells and produces sticky mucus.
Bio-identical hormones– male and female hormones that are identical in structure to those produced in the human body. The hormones are synthesized in a laboratory from disogenin derived from yams or soy.
Burning mouth syndrome is a painful, frustrating condition often described as a scalding sensation in the tongue, lips, palate, or throughout the mouth. Although BMS can affect anyone, it occurs most commonly in middle-aged or older women.
Capsules a gelatinous (usually porcine) or cellulose (vegetable based) case enclosing a dose of medicine
Complementary medicines Complementary medicines (also known as ‘traditional’ or ‘alternative’ medicines) include vitamin, mineral, herbal, aromatherapy and homoeopathic products.
Consumer Medicines Information Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) is designed to inform consumers about prescription and pharmacist-only medicines. It provides information about a medicine and is written by the pharmaceutical manufacturer.
Creams emulsions of oil and water containing a substance and used externally for a variety of cosmetic or medicinal purposes.
Diosgenin Diosgenin is a phytoestrogen, or a plant-based oestrogen, that can be chemically converted into hormones such as progesterone and oestradiol.
Dosage Administration Aids DAAs are devices or systems designed to assist consumers in the community to better manage their medicines, with the objective of avoiding medication misadventure and associated hospitalisation.
Dosage form Dosage forms are the means by which drug molecules are delivered to sites of action within the body
Dry socket Dry socket is a painful condition that sometimes occurs after a tooth is extracted. It happens when the blood clot that forms over your socket is displaced; leaving bone and nerves exposed.
DVA Card – The Department of Veteran Affairs (DVA) issues treatment cards to veterans, their war widows and widowers and dependants, to ensure that they have access to health and other care services that promote and maintain self-sufficiency, well-being and quality of life.
Emulsions an emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are usually unmixable. In an emulsion, one liquid (the dispersed phase). As an example, oil and water can form, firstly, an oil-in-water emulsion, where the oil is the dispersed phase, and water is the dispersion medium. Secondly, they can form a water-in-oil emulsion, where water is the dispersed phase and oil is the external phase.
Fifth Community Pharmacy Agreement The Fifth Community Pharmacy Agreement (Agreement) between the Australian Government and the Pharmacy Guild of Australia (the Guild) started on 1 July 2010 and is in place for five years. It recognises the key role played by community pharmacies in primary health care through the delivery of Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) medicines and related services.
Fillers Fillers fill out the size of a tablet or capsule, making it practical to produce and convenient for the consumer to use. Examples of fillers used in compounding include lactose, methylcellulose, acacia
Formulary is a collection of formulae for the compounding of medicines
Gels are semisolid systems consisting of suspensions made up of small inorganic particles or large organic molecules interpenetrated by a liquid that are often used for application to the skin. Drugs can be suspended in the matrix phase or dissolved in the liquid phase.
Gonnorrhoea is a common bacterial infection of the throat, anus, urethra (urine passage), cervix (neck of the womb) and eyes. Gonorrhoea is sometimes called ‘gono’ or ‘the clap’. It is usually transmitted during sex. Gonorrhoea infections have been increasing steadily in Australia since 1997, particularly among young people aged 15 to 29, and among men who have sex with men.
Hypertension is the medical term for constantly high blood pressure. Most people with high blood pressure have no symptoms and feel well. However, over time, constantly high blood pressure can cause heart and blood vessel damage.
Home Medicine Review (HMR) is designed to assist people living at home to maximise the benefits of their medicine regimen and prevent medication related problems. A HMR Service is available to Patient’s living in the community whose General Practitioner (GP) determines that an HMR is clinically necessary to optimise the quality use of medicines and to address the patient’s needs.
INR stands for International Normalised Ratio and is a test of blood clotting. It is primarily used to monitor warfarin therapy.
Integrative Medicine is a term used to describe the combination of practices and methods of alternative medicine such as omega-3-fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics and herbal remedies with conventional medicine.
Lip balm is a wax-like substance applied topically to the lips of the mouth. Lip balms often contain beeswax, cetyl alcohol, lanoline and paraffin, among other ingredients.
Lotion is a liquid preparation intended for application to the sin without friction.
Lozenge is a semi-solid preparation consisting of medicines incorporated in a flavoured base and intended to dissolve or disintegrate slowly in the mouth.
Melasma is a common skin condition that causes the appearance of brown to gray-brown patches of skin due to the body producing too much melanin, a natural substance that gives color to our hair, skin, and eyes. It usually appears on the face, although it can also develop on the forearms and neck.
Metabolism refers to the countless chemical processes going on continuously inside the body that allow life and normal functioning.
Milk ejection reflex is a normal reflex in a lactating woman elicited by tactile stimulation of the nipple, resulting in release of milk from the glands of the breast. This reflex requires intact nerve connections from nipple to hypothalamus and release of the hormone oxytocin from the posterior pituitary into the bloodstream. It is commonly called “let-down”.
Mixture a liquid oral preparation consisting of one or more medicines dissolved, suspended or diffused in an aqueous vehicle
Mouthwash an aqueous solution, often in concentrated form, intended for local treatment of the membranous lining of the mouth and gums
National Prescribing Service (NPS) is an independent, not-for-profit organisation funded by the Australian Government Department if Health and Ageing. It is the Quality Use of Medicines service agency for Australia’s National Medicine Policy
Nebuliser a machine that converts liquid medication into a fine mist that can then be inhaled.
Needle Exchange or Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) is where injecting drug users can exchange used needles and syringes with clean ones. NSP’s are a public health measure, consistent with the National Drug Strategy’s harm minimisation framework, to reduce the spread of infections such as HIV and hepatitis C among injecting drug users. In addition to providing sterile injecting equipment and sharps bins for safe disposal of used needles and syringes they often provide education on reducing drug use, health information, and referral to drug treatment, medical care and legal and social services.
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) provides nicotine to reduce the cravings and withdrawal symptoms that many people experience when they try to stop smoking. The nicotine can be delivered in different forms such as patches, gum, sub-lingual microtabs, lozenge and inhaler. Using NRT can increase the chances of successfully quitting.
Ointment Mill a tool for mixing pharmaceutical products. The mill breaks up powders as they are incorporated into a compound, resulting in smaller, uniform particles which deliver more chemical surface area.
Ointment a semi-solid preparation consisting of one or more medicaments dissolved or dispersed in a suitable base and intended for application to the skin. An ointment is 80 percent oil and 20 percent water.
Opiate substitution treatment (OST)
Opiate substitution therapy is the administration of a prescribed daily dosage of opioid medicines (either methadone or buprenorphine) under medical supervision to patients with opioid dependence.
Paint a liquid preparation intended for application to the skin or mucous membranes.
Pap Smear a quick and simple test that can find early changes in cells of the cervix that might develop into cancer.
Pastes consist of finely powdered medicaments combined with white soft paraffin or liquid paraffin or with a non-greasy base made from glycerol, mucilages or soaps. Pastes contain a high proportion of powdered ingredients and therefore are normally very stiff.
Patch a medicated adhesive pad that is placed on the skin to deliver a timed-release dose of medication through the skin into the bloodstream.
Patient Medication Profile (PMP) is a comprehensive summary of all regular medicines taken by a patient. They assist at-risk patients to better understand and manage their medicines and provide an important communication tool for connecting patients and their health care professionals.
Pelvic floor The pelvic floor muscles stretch between the tailbone of the spine and the pubic bone in front. They support the bladder and bowel (and vagina and uterus in women). Pelvic floor exercises strengthen pelvic floor muscles for good bladder and bowel control.
Pessary a solid dosage form intended for insertion into the vagina for local treatment.
Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) gives all Australian residents and eligible overseas visitors access to prescription medicine in a way that is affordable, reliable and timely. Through the PBS, the Australian Government subsidises the cost of listed prescription medicine, making it more affordable for all Australians.
Pharmacist – is registered to provide pharmacy services by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency.
Pharmacy Assistant – assists pharmacist to provide pharmacy services. They deal professionally and confidently with customers on a large range of health, personal care and beauty issues. Pharmacy assistants deal with everything from accepting prescriptions through to infant care, wound and skin care. In QCPP accredited pharmacies pharmacy assistants are required to complete Pharmacy and Pharmacist Only Medicines (S2/S3 ) training and continuing education which may include Certificate 3 in Community Pharmacy.
Pharmacy Guild – the Pharmacy Guild of Australia represents the interests of community pharmacy in Australia and negotiates Community Pharmacy Agreements with the Australian Government. See www.guild.org.au
Pharmacy Intern or graduate – after completing a pharmacy degree at a recognized tertiary institution pharmacy graduates complete an internship year usually in a community or hospital pharmacy. Interns must complete 1824 hours of supervised practice in accordance with the requirements of the Pharmacy Board of Australia (www.pharmacyboard.gov.au) in addition to completing a written and oral examination to achieve pharmacy registration.
PSA – Pharmaceutical Society of Australia is the organization representing the professional interests of all pharmacists in Australia see www.psa.org.au
QCPP – Quality Care Pharmacy Program (QCPP) is a quality assurance program for community pharmacy in Australia delivered by the Pharmacy Guild of Australia. It provides support and guidance on professional health services and pharmacy business operations. See www.qcpp.com
Rapid-dissolve tablets (or rapidly disintegrating) tablets are designed to be placed in the mouth and to disintegrate rapidly, usually in 10 to 60 seconds. An advantage is that the patient doesn’t have to swallow a solid but can swallow a liquid. It can be used for drugs that treat pain because it is so quick acting and for other drugs for which quick onset of action is needed.
Rectal Rocket a uniquely designed suppository that is used primarily used to treat internal and external hemorrhoids by delivering medicine directly to the site of inflammation. Unlike commercially manufactured suppositories that lapse into the rectum, the flared end of the Rectal Rocket and its comparatively larger size ensure that the medication remains in contact with the affected tissue for 4 to 6 hours. The contoured front end and a flared bottom ensure that this suppository remains in continuous contact with the anal sphincter and the external perianal area, so that both internal and external hemorrhoids can be treated simultaneously. The Rectal Rocket also features a slit that runs the length of the suppository to enable the passage of flatulence without expulsion of the Rectal Rocket.
Self Care Fact Cards information sheets produced by the Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. They have essential information for staff and customers, linking medicines and pharmacy products to successful health outcomes. Each includes counselling points, highlight when referral is appropriate, and provides contact details for further information. All Fact Cards are reviewed and updated regularly to ensure the information is accurate, evidence based and up to date. They are written in simple, easy-to-read language and designed primarily as counselling tools that pharmacists and pharmacy staff can tailor to individual needs.
Solutions are homogeneous liquid dispersion of a solute (Solid, Liquid or Gas) dissolved in a suitable vehicle (Water, alcohol or any other solvent mixture)
Staged supply is the process by which pharmacists supply medicines to consumers in periodic instalments of less than the total required or prescribed quantity at agreed intervals. A staged supply service is aimed at improving the safety and efficacy of medicine use in vulnerable consumers. The service is of particular value to patients with a mental illness, drug dependency or who are otherwise unable to manage their medicines safely. Instalments are supplied at agreed intervals, which may be daily, weekly or as directed by the prescriber.
Suppository is a drug delivery system that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository) or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts.
Suspension a heterogeneous mixture containing solid particles (internal phase) that are dispersed throughout the external phase (fluid) through mechanical agitation with the use of certain excipients or suspending agents such as tragacanth.
TENS machine Transcutaneous (through the skin) Electrical Nerve Stimulation is a treatment that uses low voltage electrical currents to relieve pain. It sends small electrical stimulations to nerves in your body which then provides you with pain relief. This method has proven to be effective and safe for the treatment of chronic and acute pain.
Transdermal creams are formulated so that drugs can be delivered to the body (systemically) through the skin.
semisolid bases such as ointments, creams, gels and pastes.
Troche (gelatine) is a soft (gummy-like) lozenge designed to dissolve in the mouth or under the tongue
Troches (polyglycol) a semi-solid lozenge designed to dissolve under the tongue or in the buccal cavity (cheek)
Unguator is an electronic mortar and pestle used for mixing ingredients into semisolid bases such as ointments, creams, gels and pastes.